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Library Research Support: Overview: Bibliometric Research Indicators

Support for Research Staff & Research Students

Overview of (Biblio)metric Research Indicators

The Guide provides a brief overview of Bibliometrics; these provide methods of extracting measurable data around publication and citation activity as one possible indicator of research quality, productivity or reach.



Citation is a reference provided by an author to direct a reader to a published or unpublished source or underpinning set of data, usually for the purpose of acknowledging their relevance to the topic of discussion.

Citation Counting

The number of citations an article receives is one indicator of the "academic impact" of the article, providing an indication of its popularity (or reach) in terms of how many people have read and then applied or referred to that research. A high citation count is not a direct indication of high quality, however. Read about the Limitations of some publication metrics on this guide (see Responsible Metrics).

Citation Searching and Citation Alerts

It is possible to track when newly published research cites a published research output you are already interested in.

This could be useful to:

  • Track developing discussions or applications of research or methodologies within your field of interest.
  • Track where and how your own published work is being cited within the academic community.

For further information, see our guide to Citation Searching.

Overview of Bibliometric Research Indicators

In order to monitor citations, you need an as comprehensive citation dataset as possible to make the collection, counting and analysis in any way meaningful.

Below are five key sources of citation data available:

Source Description Key Indicators / Uses

Open Citations I4OC

The Initiative for Open Citations (I4OC) is a collaboration between scholarly publishers, researchers, and other interested parties to promote the unrestricted availability of scholarly citation data.

It recognises that in order to best enable researchers, and the wider public, to keep up with new and significant developments in any field, it is "essential to have unrestricted access to bibliographic and citation data in machine-readable form" and that citation data are "not usually freely available to access, they are often subject to inconsistent, hard-to-parse licenses, and they are usually not machine-readable".

Further information about I4OC.

Open Citation data is provided by many academic publishers and may be accessed within a few days through the Crossref REST API (which is fed into our Library Discover service).

Web of Science

Previously provided by Thomson Reuters, and now by Clarivate Analytics, the Web Of Science is the original 'Citation Index" for published academic research, originating with the Science Citation Index (SCI) in 1964, and later followed by the 'Arts and Humanities Citation Index' and the 'Social Sciences Citation Index'.

Further information about Web of Science content coverage.

Citation data from the Web of Science is used to calculate the:

  • Journal Impact Factor (JIF),
  • Eigenfactor
  • other metrics published in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR).

Citation data from Web of Science will be used in REF2021, and forms part of the calculations used by the:

  • Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities


Provided by Elsevier, Scopus launched in 2004 as a competitor to Web of Science.

Further information about Scopus content coverage.

Citation data from Scopus is used to calculate the:

  • Citescore,
  • Scimago Journal Rank (SJR)
  • Source normalized impact per paper (SNIP)

Citation data from Scopus was used in REF2014, and forms part of the calculations used by the:

  • (THE) World University Rankings
  • QS World University Rankings.
Dimensions (Digital Science)

Dimensions is a linked data platform launched in January 2018 by Digital Science (who also provide services including, Figshare and ReadCube).

It extracts references between publications either from existing sources (such as Crossref, PubMed Central, or Open Citations (I4OC)), or directly from the full text record provided by the content publisher. Reference extraction is not limited to articles published within journals: it also includes citations from (and to) monographs, text-books, conference proceedings, and pre-prints.

You can see some examples of how publishers and others have used Dimensions data here. You may also spot Dimensions Badges on some article, repository or author profile pages, similar to this one below:

Google Scholar

Unlike Web of Science and Scopus (which require subscription access), this is a free to access service which provides citation data.

See our blog post on citation data in Google Scholar, and why citation counts are often higher in Google Scholar than anywhere else.

Many academics create a Google Citations Profile to track citations for their own publications, or use Publish or Perish (free software) to download and calculate various metrics from the data available.
Most of the metrics below can be calculated for an individual article, or any collection of articles (e.g. all publications by a single author, produced by a research group, journal, academic department or institution. Most can be derived from data provided by Scopus or Web of Science, or from a citation analysis service such as SciVal (which uses Scopus data).

Publication count

The most basic metric which can be used as a measure of productivity is the number of publications produced by an individual, or group of individuals.

A metric for Publication Count (defined as Scholarly Output) is included in the Snowball Metrics Recipe Handbook 

Citation count

The total sum of citations received by an author's research outputs, or a group of researcher's outputs.

A metric for Citation Count is included in the Snowball Metrics Recipe Handbook 

Citation Impact (Mean Citations per publication)

The mean citation rate of a group of research outputs.

A metric for Citation Impact (defined as Citations per Output) is included in the Snowball Metrics Recipe Handbook 

Cited publications

Either a total number of publications which have received at least 1 citation, or a percentage of total publications which have received 1 or more citations.

Field-weighted Citation Impact (FWCI) ~ calculated from Scopus citation data

A comparison of the actual number of citations received by a single output, or large group of outputs, with what might have been the expected number of citations they would receive, based upon the mean number of citations received by all other similar publications (e.g. normalised by output type, output age and field of study).

  • FWCI of 1.00 indicates that a group of outputs have been cited exactly in line with the global average for similar outputs.
  • FWCI of 1.82 indicates that a group of outputs have been cited 82% more than the global average for similar outputs.
  • FWCI of 0.77 indicates that a group of outputs have been cited 23% less than the global average for similar outputs.

The FWCI is included in the Snowball Metrics Recipe Handbook 

% Outputs in Top percentiles

The % of a group of outputs which are in the global top 1/10/25% most cited outputs.

A metric for Outputs in Top Percentiles is included in the Snowball Metrics Recipe Handbook 

% Outputs in Top Journals

The % of a group of outputs which are in the global top 1/5/10/25% of journals, when ranked by an identified journal metric (eg by JIF, Citescore, SJR or SNIP).

A metric for Outputs in Top Journal Percentiles is included in the Snowball Metrics Recipe Handbook 

Collaboration Impact metrics (based on co-authorship of outputs)

Some metrics may also look at the Citation Impact of outputs within a group of outputs, which have a co-author with an affiliation which does not belong to the parent group.

For example, this might offer a comparison of the Citation Impact of a group of articles with international (e.g. where a co-author's affiliation does not belong to the author's institution and is outside that institution's country) or corporate co-authors, compared to the Citation Impact of the whole group of articles.

Metrics looking at collaboration and academic-corporate collaboration are included in the Snowball Metrics Recipe Handbook 

Responsible Metrics: 

- DORA: "assess research on its own merits rather than on the basis of the journal in which the research is published"
Leiden Manifesto: "The impact factor is calculated for journals indexed in the US-based and still mostly English-language Web of Science. These biases are particularly problematic in the social sciences and humanities, in which research is more regionally and nationally engaged."
The Metric Tide: "placing too much emphasis on narrow, poorly-designed indicators – such as journal impact factors (JIFs) – can have negative consequences"
- Durham University Statement on Responsible Metrics: "We will guard against false precision, for example reliance solely on journal / publisher rankings or single metrics."


Journal Impact Factor (JIF)

Calculated from the previous 2 year’s worth of citation data found in the Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics) database. It gives an approximate measure for the average number of citations articles published in that journal over 2 years have received, in that year (So a 2015 JIF is the average number of citations received in 2015, for articles published in 2013-14). Citations are not weighted, nor can you draw any conclusions from comparing journals across subject boundaries as it will not take into account differences in publication or citation culture.

Journal Impact Factor methodology

Further information:

JIF Scores: Available via Web Of Science (Journal Citation Reports) - Library Subscription

How do I?: View the JIF (or Eigenfactor) of a journal or journals in my research field?


Calculated from the previous 2 years of citation data as curated by the Journal Citation Reports (Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics) database). Citations are weighted based upon where they come from. Eigenfactor scores are scaled so that the sum of scores for all journals listed in the JCRs total 100, so that a journal with an Eigenfactor score of 1.0 has 1% of the total “influence” of all indexed publications. There are over 11,000 journals ranked, with PLoS One having the highest Eigenfactor Score as of 2019 (with a score of 1.70677, compared to Nature's 1.28501).

Further information:

JIF Scores: Available via Web Of Science (Journal Citation Reports) - Library Subscription

How do I?: View the JIF (or Eigenfactor) of a journal or journals in my research field?


Calculated from the previous 3 year’s worth of citation data found in the Scopus (Elsevier) database. Launched in December 2016, 'Citescore' is similar to the JIF - but is updated monthly as well as annually. It gives an approximate measure for the average number of citations articles published in that journal over 2 years have received in that year (So a 2016 Citescore is the average number of citations received in 2016, for articles published in 2014-15). Citations are not weighted, nor can you draw any conclusions from comparing journals across subject boundaries as it will not take into account differences in publication or citation culture.

Citescore Methodology 2020

Further information on the (2020) updated methodology for Citescore: Scopus Blog June 2020

Citescore Rankings: Available via Scopus Journal Metrics

How do I?: View the Citescore, SNIP or SJR of a journal or journals in my research field?

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR)

Calculated from the previous 3 year’s worth of citation data found in the Scopus (Elsevier) database. Citations are weighted based upon where they come from (a journal with a higher or lower SJR), and normalised based upon the set of documents which cite its papers, thus providing a ‘classification free’ measure for comparison.

Further information:

SJR Scores: Available via Scopus Journal Metrics

How do I?: View the Citescore, SNIP or SJR of a journal or journals in my research field?

Source-Normalised Impact per Paper (SNIP)

Calculated from previous 3 years of citation data found in the Scopus (Elsevier) database. A journal’s ‘subject field’ is taken into account, normalising for subject specific citation cultures (average number of citations, amount of indexed literature, speed of publication) to allow an easier comparison of scores for journals between different subject areas.

Further information:

SNIP Scores: Available via Scopus Journal Metrics

How do I?: View the Citescore, SNIP or SJR of a journal or journals in my research field?

Responsible Metrics: 

- DORA: "Use a range of article metrics and indicators on personal/supporting statements, as evidence of the impact of individual published articles and other research outputs"
Leiden Manifesto: "Base assessment of individual researchers on a qualitative judgement of their portfolio"
The Metric Tide: "performance-based control mechanisms are increasingly used outside their original context of evaluation ... leading to an inappropriate emphasis on individual measures such as the h-index."
- Durham University Statement on Responsible Metrics: "Metrics should be designed in a way that accounts for, and where necessary minimises, their potential shortcomings. Metrics should be... cognisant of potential bias e.g. h-index favours seniority."



The Hirsch index (or Hirsch number) was first proposed in 2005 as a measure for the academic productivity and impact of a researcher's publications over their career. An author's h-index will increase over time, as they publish more papers and their published papers attract more citations.

The h-index is defined as follows:

"An author has an h-index of h, if a number of their papers have h or more citations"

Example: An author has published 22 publications. Of these publications, at least 8 have received at least 8 citations each. The author does not have 9 publications which have received at least 9 citations. Therefore, that author has an h-index of 8.

H-index graph

How do I?: Calculate my h-index using Scopus, Web of Science or Google Scholar data?

Limitations on use: see Responsible Metrics on this guide.

A metric for Publication Count (defined as Scholarly Output) is included in the Snowball Metrics Recipe Handbook 

Alternative author metrics to the h-index

The h-index is not a useful metric for early career researchers, amongst other criticisms of its usefulness. Some alternative metrics you might want to consider include:

  • Publication and/or citation count
  • Citation impact (Mean Citations per publication)
  • % Outputs in Top percentiles
  • % Outputs in Top Journals
  • % Outputs cited

Think of what your h-index doesn't show:

H-index: what else do you need to know?


Alternatively , there are several proposed variations on the h-index which are sometimes used or referred to.


The g-index, proposed by Leo Egghe in 2006, us similar to the h-index but aims to take some account of any highly-cited papers.

The g-index is defined as follows:

"[Where a given set of articles are] ranked in decreasing order of the number of citations that they received, the g-index is the (unique) largest number such that the top g articles received (together) at least g2 citations."

Example: An author has published 22 publications. Of these publications, the sum of the citations of the top 12 articles (by number of citations) is equal to or over 144 12 squared) citations. The sum of the citations for their top 13 articles (by number of citations) is less than 169 (13 squared) citations however. Therefore their g-index is 12.


The M-index, or M-quotient, was also proposed by Hirsch in 2005. It aimed to allow a more fair comparison between academics of differing career lengths.

An author's m-value is found by dividing their h-index by the number of years the author has been actively publishing (measured as the number of years since their first published paper).

Example: An author with an h-index of 18 who has been actively publishing for 6 years will have an m-index of 3. An author with an h-index of 30 who has been actively publishing for 15 years will have an m-index of 2. If the two author's are publishing in the same field of study, this may give a more fair way of comparing the impact of the author's publication output over the length of each of their publishing careers.

Below we have highlighted some of the considerations you should bare in mind when making any judgement based on a citation based metric. You can also print off this guide here:

Why are publications cited?

"The popular view that citation rate is a measure of scientific quality is not supported by the bibliometric expert community. Bibliometricians generally see the citation rate as a proxy measure of scientific impact or of impact on the relevant scientific communities. This is one of the dimensions of scientific or scholarly quality."

'The Metric Tide: Literature Review' (July 2015) 

If the rate of citation is to be seen as an indicator or proxy for impact or quality, then this assumes that a citation is made in recognition of the contribution that earlier research has made.

But there are recognised problems in when and how some citations are made:

  • Citation to highlight, correct or refer to research found to be, or later considered to be, of poor or flawed methodology, conclusion or application of research theory (see the example in the image below of a retracted article continuing to accrue citations).
  • Citation to satisfy the expectations of editors and peer reviewers; see examples of this identified problem here, here and here.
  • Citation to "assist" the author's previous publications, or those of a colleague, by boosting citation rates; see examples of this identified problem here, and COPE have published a discussion document addressing this issue here.
  • Citation and self-citation to provide an impression of a wider community/audience interested in the topic.
  • Citation as part of any informal (and unethical) citation cartel activity: see examples of this identified problem hereherehere and here.

When using citation based metrics as part of research assessment, it should be recognised that citations can and are used for differing purposes, which is often ignored in many citation based metrics where in most cases each citation is treated equally as 'positive' indicators of a publications 'impact' or 'value'.

Citations to a retracted article 20+ years later

What can influence citation metrics?

When using any citation metrics, users should remain aware of what factors may affect citation rates.

Document type: 

Citation rates differ between types of publication (e.g. monographs and journal articles) and types of article (research papers and review articles). Inclusion or exclusion of some document types can also make comparison of some metrics problematic, or may obscure or give disproprotionate prominence to some outputs.

See Glänze & Moed (2003), Hamarfelt (2010), van Leeuewn et al (2012), Torres-Salina et al (2013) and Chi (2020)

Subject of Discipline: 

Publication and citation rates vary across disciplines, and are not directly comparable. This can be illustrated if comparing the aggregate JIF or Citescore for different subject categories side by side.

Research Type: 

Applied research has been observed to attract fewer citations on average than "basic" or "pure" research in some fields. in some disciplines, quantitative based research has been shown to be cited less frequently than more qualitative research papers.

See Yegors-Yegors & Rafols (2015) and Fawcett & Higginson (2012)

Gender inequality

Studies using global analyses of data   show the dominance of male-authored articles, and male first-authored articles. Female authors are also more likely to work part-time or take career breaks or mid-career changes.

At the author level, male authors tend to have more citations across their career (impacting on metrics such as citation count and the h-index) - likely due to a range of these and other factors, but at a citation impact level this advantage is less clear.

See differing conclusions in West et al (2013), Symonds et al (2006), Sugimoto et al (2013), Cotropia (2018), Dion et al (2018) and Thelwall (2020)

Research Career Stage: 

The so-called Matthew effect in citation accrual, whereby the more prestige (citations) an author has, the more likely they are to accrue further prestige (citations) due to their prominence within their field of research.

Some metrics, such as the h-index, are measures of both impact and productivity, and may not fully reflect the impact of an author with only a few publications to their name.

See Bornmann et al (2012), Collet et al (2014) or for an alternative conclusion Wang (2014).


Time since publication: 

Citations are accrued over time, and thus the date at which a metric is calculated, and the date range which citation is collected from, will affect the outcome.

Citation accrual may see different rates in different disciplines, and it can be hard to assess citation impact of recent publications which have not had time to be disseminated and assimilated in to the research conversation.

Source of Citation Data: 

Scopus, Web of Science, Dimensions and Google Scholar provide different coverage, both in terms of publications indexed, types of publication indexed and the date coverage of those publications.

This will impact on any metrics calculated from these data-sets: your h-index as calculated using data from Scopus will be different to that if calculated using citation data from Google Scholar.

See our blog post for examples.

Size of the dataset: 

Most outputs do not attract large numbers of citations; a few attract many citations and thus "inflate" the average of the dataset as a whole. As no source of citation date is complete, all citation-based metrics are calculated from a sample of the complete data. The smaller the 'sample' dataset, the more extreme outliers are likely to have a greater impact on any metrics which use the arithmetic mean of the dataset.

See Rowlands (2017) for an analysis of confidence intervals based on differing sample sizes for the calculation of FWCI.

Factors to consider when looking at journal level metrics

There is some discussion across the academic community around the when, where and how of using journal level metrics as a basis for any evaluation of the research output of an individual author or group of authors.

However, it remains to be the case that in many situations, a value is placed upon where an author has published, not just what they have published, and this may impact upon your career as a researcher.

  • Recruitment panels may officially, or unofficially, use the perceived 'ranking' of a journal to support long- or short- listing of candidates.
  • Some national governments, including China, Turkey and South Korea, have in the past offered financial incentives to publish in 'high impact' journals.
  • Some University rankings use journal level metrics to a certain extent, such as the Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities.
  • Whilst officially journal level metrics such as the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) were not used as a means of assessment in the UK's Research Excellence Framework (REF), in some discipline areas there was a correlation between the REF2014 results and the JIF of the journals from which articles were submitted. This may incentivise individuals and institutions as to where they may aim to publish their research in the future.

Distribution of citations

The Journal Impact Factor (JIF), Citescore and other metrics present a measure of the 'average citations per article' a journal received over a set period. However, the distribution of citations to articles are often highly skewed, with some very highly cited articles and many articles which may not have received any citations at all.

See Colquhoun (2003), Curry (2012), Lariviere et al (2016), and Blanford 2016.


Limitations of subject classifications

Journal  Metrics try to account for the differences between disciplines by assigning journals to 'subject categories' to aid comparison.

As a rule, you should not try to compare journals across these subject categories (a JIF of 2 in one category may be very high, but very low in another).

Potential for Gaming

There is a recognised potential for ‘influencing’ the journal impact factor of a journal, which may be in the interests of editors, publishers or authors with a stake in the particular journal. Not all activities are necessarily unethical, but do have an impact on the citation rate to articles in the journal.

Even where addressed (e.g. a journal being excluded from a years JCR publication, and so not being granted a JIF), this can be problematic where nuances in the discipline may not have been taken into account (e.g. rate of journal self-citation in a small and niche research field).

See Falagas (2008), Van Noorden (2012) and Retraction Watch (2020)

What is citeable?

One criticism of some journal level metrics is that some journal content (for example, letters, editorial or commentary material and other ‘front matter’) is not deemed ‘citeable’; these article types are not included in the ‘number of publications’ element of the metric – but any citations those articles do attract may still be counted in the ‘total citations’ to the journal. 

This presents some difficulties in offering a clear comparison between journals within each of the ranking systems.

See Bergstrom & West (2016), Gasparyan et al (2017) and Liu, Gai & Zhou (2016)

Negative Citations

An article can attract a large number of citations from other authors disagreeing or finding fault with the findings, methodology and or conclusions. This is all a valid and essential part of the scholarly discussion.

Unless that article is redacted (which may not be justified), those citations will still contribute to the aggregated total of citations used in the calculation of most journal level metrics.

Incentivising negative behaviours

One of the greatest concerns amongst the academic community about journal level metrics is not about the reliability of the metrics or the limitations of their use, but about incentivising some negative behaviours in authors and the communication of research.

This could include influencing the choice of where to publish based on recruitment or promotion criteria (rather than the best venue for the research to reach its intended audience or be best served by editorial or peer review), pressures on authors working in interdisciplinary collaborations, pressure on editors to accept articles based on likely citation rather than quality or novelty, and the impact on recruitment and promotion activity focusing on venue of publication over quality of research.

See the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment or, if you like your research delivered with a certain level of ‘humour for neuroscientists’, Paulus (2015)

Factors to consider when using the h-index

For a useful review and critique of the h-index, see Barnes, C (2017).

Limitations of the h-index

  • The h-index does not take into account differences in rate or publication and citation across disciplines, or fields of study within the same discipline, and so is of limited use as a comparative metric for authors across different research areas.
  • The h-index can over-simplify scholarly impact and productivity. Two authors in the same discipline with the same h-index can have significantly different publication and citation profiles, and impact of research around citation and publication count are not accounted for.
  • The importance of an author's highly cited papers may not be reflected by an author's h-index. 
  • An author's h-index can never be higher than the number of papers they have published. Therefore, the h-index is less favourable to early career researchers with fewer publications to their name.
  • An h-index will not accurately reflect the impact of any decline in productivity or relevance of research for an established researcher. 
  • The h-index does not account for those who work part-time or may take a career break. This may include those who work outside of academia and so publish less frequently for a period, but is also more likely to discriminate against women or those with health difficulties or caring responsibilities.
  • In disciplines where papers may have very high numbers of authors ("kilo-papers"), the h-index does not take into account the level of the contribution of an author to that paper.
  • An author's h-index is dependent upon the data source used, so will vary between Web of Science, Scopus and other sources.

The below image offers an illustration (from Professor Stephen Curry, Imperial College London) of what the h-index obscures or ignores in simplifying citation and publication impact to a single metric.

What does the hindex not tell you?

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